Twelve Gods of Olympus
essay is a summary of the information about the twelve principal gods in the Greek mythology taken from both ancient and modern sources.
Here we will
discuss the primary Greek gods, their origin, individuality, attitudes towards them their portrayal in the ancient mythology and literature up to the fifth century BC, as well as goals and the purposes of the religion.
Greek religion has no single origin. The Greeks were an Indo-European people who settled in the non-Indo-European Aegean basin. They came into contact with the many advanced civilizations of the ancient Near East and borrowed certain elements of their religion into the Greek society. Greek religion never lost this openness to foreign gods: at the end of the fifth century, for instance, two new gods arrived in Athens, Sabazius from Phrygia and Bendis from Thrace.
Names of around thirty gods and goddesses have been recognized on the tablets from Mycenaean Knossos and Pylos. The number of principal gods, however, was always restricted.
Homer shows us ten of them: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hermes, Hephaestus, and Ares. These, together with Demeter and Dionysus made up the twelve most powerful gods of the Greek mythology.
The Olympian gods were not the creators of the universe, but rather the offspring of three or four generations beginning with Gaia and Ouranus. In his writings Herodotus says: "Not till the day before yesterday, so to speak, did the Greeks know the origin of each of the gods, or whether they had all existed always, and what they were like in appearance... It was Homer and Hesiod who created a theogony for the Greeks, gave the gods their epithets, divided out offices and functions among them, and described their appearance".
The Twelve were known to dwell either on the heavenly mountain Olympus as the family of Zeus or in their favoured cities. Individual Greek communities paid special honour to particular gods, or gods "took most delight in particular sanctuaries". The choice of the place by gods was not always peaceful procedure. For instance, the west pediment of the Parthenon is picturing contest between Athena and Poseidon over the primacy in Athens.
Zeus was the one to lead the Olympians against Ouranus and the Titans. After they won the battle, "the Twelve" reigned forever over the universe. Zeus himself received control over the heavens and the sky. Being the supreme god of the Greek religion, he is known to be a protector of justice and as a symbol of the father and protector of the family. Accordingly to some historians, Zeus' origin was in the Indo-European part of the world. He is the only god whose name can be interpreted with certainty - "father". His main sanctuary was found at Olympia.
Aphrodite was an example of an ideal, beautiful and attractive woman.
Hera was associated with marriage and royalty and represented an image of a noble woman as a part of her marriage. She was considered a very powerful goddess and was worshiped throughout the Greek world. Her rectangular temple on the island of Samos, constructed in 7th century BC, was the first to make a clear distinction between divine and human houses, which proves her importance in the Greek religion. Her sanctuary was located at Olympia along with her husband's.
Another god, who received a very significant role after overcoming the Titans, was Poseidon. He gained an absolute power over the seas and became in charge of horses and earthquakes. Poseidon is considered to be more unpredictable (as a sea) and much wilder than Zeus is.
Athena represents the sphere of practical wisdom, weaving, carpentry, metalworking and technology in general. She, as a true daughter of her father, is also responsible for justice. For example, in The Eumenides she is the one who breaks the jury's tie and makes the decision that the claims of the father are more important than those of the mother, justifying Clytemenestra's death. Despite the fact that Athena never is associated with any male, she is known as a friend and helper of warrior-heroes.
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Greek Mythology: Metamorphosis Metamorphosis is a key element in Greek mythology. This ability to change Shape or form is a major development in the stories of Arachne, Zeus, and Daphne. Almost all of the gods had the power of metamorphosis.
The first story was the one of Arachne. Arachne was a mortal, who was a Great weaver. She was Ancient Greece is a peninsula located off the Mediterranean Sea, and is surrounded by several islands Ancient Greece was made up of different types of government. There were two types of city states an oligarchy, which is ruled by a small group of citizens and a direct democracy ruled by the people. All citizens could make speeches and vote at the Assembly. The Council made up of 500 citizens made new Metamorphosis Metamorphosis is a key element in Greek mythology. This ability to change shape or form is a major development in the stories of Arachne, Zeus, and Daphne. Almost all of the gods had the power of metamorphosis.
The first story was the one of Arachne. Arachne was a mortal, who was a great weaver. She was Zeus Zeus was the son of Cronus and Rhea, an earlier race of Ruling gods called Titans. Cronus was king of all the Titans. Zeus Was the brother of Hades and Poseidon, Hades was the god of the Underworld and Poseidon was the god of the sea. Together they Overthrew their father and the rest of Pallas Athene Versus Minerva The Goddess Athena has been an incredibly well-liked mythological character for centuries because of her complex personality and the values which are taught through her actions. The powerful Goddess has been generally thought of as being the same person in both Greek and Roman stories alike, but this is not true. Athena was looked upon