Carl Friedrich Gauss
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Carl Friedrich Gauss Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician and scientist whodominated the mathematical community during and after his lifetime. Hisoutstanding work includes the discovery of the method of least squares, thediscovery of non-Euclidean geometry, and important contributions to the theoryof numbers. Born in Brunswick, Germany, on April 30, 1777, Johann Friedrich CarlGauss showed early and unmistakable signs of being an extraordinary youth. As achild
prodigy, he was self taught in the fields of reading and arithmetic. Recognizing his talent, his youthful studies were accelerated by the Duke ofBrunswick in 1792 when he was provided with a stipend to allow him to pursue hiseducation. In 1795, he continued his mathematical studies at the University of G"ottingen. In 1799, he obtained his doctorate in absentia from the University ofHelmstedt, for providing the first reasonably complete proof of what is nowcalled the fundamental theorem of algebra.
He stated that: Any polynomial withreal coefficients can be factored into the product of real linear and/or realquadratic factors. At the age of 24, he published Disquisitiones arithmeticae, in which heformulated systematic and widely influential concepts and methods of numbertheory -- dealing with the relationships and properties of integers. This bookset the pattern for many future research and won Gauss major recognition amongmathematicians. Using number theory, Gauss proposed an algebraic solution to thegeometric problem of creating a polygon of n sides. Gauss proved the possibilityby constructing a regular 17 sided polygon into a circle using only a straightedge and compass
Barely 30 years old, already having made landmark discoveries ingeometry, algebra, and number theory Gauss was appointed director of theObservatory at G"ottingen. In 1801, Gauss turned his attention to astronomy andapplied his computational skills to develop a technique for calculating orbitalcomponents for celestial bodies, including the asteroid Ceres. His methods, which he describes in his book Theoria Motus Corporum Coelestium, are still inuse today. Although Gauss made valuable contributions to both theoretical andpractical astronomy, his principle work was in mathematics, and mathematicalphysics. About 1820 Gauss turned his attention to geodesy -- the mathematicaldetermination of the shape and size of the Earth's surface -- to which hedevoted much time in the theoretical studies and field work.
In his research, hedeveloped the heliotrope to secure more accurate measurements, and introducedthe Gaussian error curve, or bell curve. To fulfill his sense of civilresponsibility, Gauss undertook a geodetic survey of his country and did much ofthe field work himself. In his theoretical work on surveying, Gauss developedresults he needed from statistics and differential geometry. Most startling among the unpublished discoveries of Gauss is that ofnon-Euclidean geometry. With a fellow student at G"ottingen, he discussedattempts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate -- Through a point outside of aline, one and only one line exists which is parallel to the first line.
As hegot closer to solving the postulate, the closer he was to non-Euclidean geometry, and by 1824, he had concluded that it was possible to develop geometry based onthe denial of the postulate. He did not publish this work, conceivably due toits controversial nature. Another striking discovery was that of noncommutative algebras, whichhas been known that Gauss had anticipated by many years but again failed topublish his results. In the 1820s, in collaboration with Wilhelm Weber, he explored manyareas of physics. He did extensive research on magnetism, and his applicationsof mathematics to both magnetism and electricity are among his most importantworks.
He also carried out research in the field of optics, particularly insystems of lenses. In addition, he worked with mechanics and acoustics whichenabled him to construct the first telegraph in 1833. Scarcely a branch of mathematics or mathematical physics was untouchedby this remarkable scientist, and in whatever field he labored, he madeunprecedented discoveries. On the basis of his outstanding research inmathematics, astronomy, geodesy, and physics, he was elected as a fellow in manyacademies and learned societies. On February 23, 1855, Gauss died an honored andmuch celebrated man for his accomplishments.
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Carl gauss Karl Gauss lived from 1777 to 1855. He was a German mathematician, physician, and astronomer. He was born in Braunschweig, Germany, on April 30th, 1777. His family was poor and uneducated. His father was a gardener and a merchant's assistant.
At a young age, Gauss taught himself how to read and count, and it is said Euclid: Father of Geometry Very little is known of the father of geometry, also known as Euclid. Records show that he lived somewhere around 300 B. C., but that date is sketchy. He was a Greek mathematician and is probably best known for his work Elements. Since little is known about the personal life of Euclid, it is difficult A History of Geometry in the World of Mathematics The beginning of geometry is hidden in the time of pre-history. Later, the humans came to recognize certain principles. People believe geometry started in Egypt. Ancient Greeks also practiced “experimental geometry” for centuries. During the Ancient Greece time period Euclid wrote thirteen books, entitled “The Elements”, that are still today one of the most influential Ancient Astronomy Astronomy has been a source for myriad ideas influencing every subject. The stars have existed since the dawn of man. People have looked to the universe to determine physical location, gain spiritual direction and to track time. Many early scientists used astronomy to make careers for themselves and print their names in all the history Astronomy – Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543 Physics February 8, 2000 Nicolas Copernicus Nicolas Copernicus 1473-1543 Copernicus was born in Poland in 1473, he started his education at Cracow University. There he studied mathematics and optics. From here he went to Italy, where he was appointed as a canon in the cathedral of Frauenburg, where he spent