The ancient Kingdom of Macedonia, situated in the north of modern Greece, Was established by Perdiccas I about 640 B. C. Perdiccas was a Dorian, although The Macedonian tribes included Thracian and Illyrian elements. Originally a Semibarbarous and fragmented power, Macedon became tributary to Persia under the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes I and thereafter struggled to maintain itself Against Thracians and other barbarians and against the Greek cities of the Chalcidice as well as Sparta and Athens.
A new stage began with Archelaus (d.399 B. C.), who centralized the kingdom With a system of roads and forts; he also fostered the Hellenization of his People by inviting famous Greek artists, Euripides among them, to his court. Few regions gave much thought to Macedonia. The area was so primitive that It seemed to belong to another age - it was a rude, brawling, heavy-drinking Country of dour peasants and landowning warriors. The language was Greek, but so Tainted by barbarian strains that Athenians could not understand it. Macedonia Remained an outland. Growth of trade in the early fourth century promoted the Rise of several cities, yet when Perdiccas III, king of Macedonia, fell in 359 B. C. while fighting the Illyrians the seaboard of his state was largely under Athenian control or in the hands of the Chalcidian league, grouped about Olynthus. Philip (382-36), brother of the dead king, was made regent for the infant Heir, soon set aside his nephew, and became outright king.
Once power was his, the young monarch swiftly brought order to his domain By armed force when necessary, by diplomatic guile whenever he could, Philip set Out to make Macedon the greatest power in the Greek world. Alexander was born in 356 to the first wife of Philip. As a teenager Alexander was educated by Athenian philosopher Aristotle. By the year 337 all of The Greek city-states had been conquered or forced into an alliance by Philip. He was planning to lead their joint forces for an invasion of the Persian empire When he was assassinated in 336. Thus at the age of 20, Alexander became king of The Macedonians. After Philip's death, some Greek cities under Macedonian rule revolted. In 335 B. C. Alexander's army stormed the walls of the rebellious city of Thebes and Demolished the city. About 30,000 inhabitants were sold in slavery. Alexander's Action against Thebes discouraged, for a time, rebellion by other Greek cities With Greece under control, Alexander turned to his fathers plan for Attacking the Persian Empire. In 334 B. C., he led an army of about 35,000 Infantry and cavalry across the Hellespont from Europe to Asia. The Persians Sent out troops that met Alexander's forces at the Granicus River. Alexander and His cavalry charged across the river and won the battle. This victory opened Asia Minor to Alexander.
After marching along the southern coast of Asia Minor. Alexander and his army headed north to the city of Gordium. By 333 B. C., Alexander had reached the coast of Syria. There, in a fierce Battle at Issus, he defeated the king of Persia, Darius III, but could not Capture him. Alexander's army them marched south into Phoenicia to capture key Naval bases at port cities. Part of one such city, Tyre, stood on an island About 1/2 mile offshore. Unable to capture the island from the sea, Alexander Ordered his engineers to build a causeway out to the island, converting it to a Peninsula that still remains today. His troops used such weapons as battering Rams, catapults, and mobile towers in their attack. The Tyrians on the island Surrendered in 332 B. C, after seven months of fighting. Alexander's use of huge Siege machines at Tyre introduced a new age of warfare. Alexander next entered Egypt. The Egyptians welcomed him as a liberator From Persian rule, and they crowned him pharaoh. On the western edge of the Nile Delta, Alexander founded a city in 331 B. C. and named it Alexandria after Himself. From Alexandria, the Macedonian king made a long difficult trek through the Libyan Desert, a part of the Sahara, to the oasis of Siwah. He consulted the Oracle of the god Zeus-Ammon, and, according to legend, the oracle pronounced Alexander the son of god.
Alexander left Egypt with an army of 4000,000 foot soldiers and 7,000 Cavalry. He crossed the Euphrates and entered Mesopotamia where in 331 B. C. he Met the Persian king once more at Gaugamela, east of the Tigris River. In spite That the fact was that his army was smaller than that of the Persians, Alexanders superior tactics won the field, and Darus was forced to flee again. By this victory he effectively won the war, although much more fighting was Needed before the Persian empire disappeared. It took three years to subdue all Of eastern Iran. After the Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander entered the ancient city of Babylon as a conqueror. From there he moved on to the great cities of the Persian Empire: Susa, Persepolis, and Pasargadae. In 330 B. C. he defeated an Army that was guarding a narrow path known as the Persian Gates by finding a Track that led around it and attacking from the rear. This gave him entrance to The Persian capital of Persepolis, where he and his men went on an orgy of Destruction and burned down the palace of Xerxes. Having penetrated this far into modern day Iran, Alexander's army was now In a country unmapped and virtually unknown to the Greeks. Still pursuing Darius, He turned northwest toward Ecabatana (modern Hamadan) then northeast to Rhagae (near Teheran). Darius had been taken hostage by Bessus, the ruler of the Province of Bactria. Alexander caught up with him as he was dying. Alexander had His body taken back to Persepolis to be buried in the royal tombs. At the death Of the Persian king, Alexander adopted the title of lord of Asia--as the ruler Of the Persian Empire was called.
By this time Alexander was becoming more and more despotic. He killed his Own foster brother, Clitus, in a drunken brawl after Clitus had insluted him. He Antagonized many of his Greek and Macedonian followers by marrying a Persian Princess, Roxane. When a plot was discovered to murder him, he had his old Teacher and historian Callisthenes put to death. Alexander spent the year 328 B. C. subjugating Bactria and in the early summer 327 B. C. recrossed the Hindu Kush to the south headed for India. Sending half of the army ahead by way of the Khyber Pass with orders to build a boat bridge across the Indus River, Alexander Himself fought his way to the river through the hills north of the pass. He Spent the winter fighting the local hill tribes. His greatest accomplishment in this campaign was in scaling and taking Mount Aornos (Pir-Sar), which was supposed to be unconquerable. Following this Victory, Alexander led his army to the banks of the Indus where they rested Until spring. Then they crossed the river an marched three days to the city of Taxila, where he was greeted by the king and much pomp and ceremony. He then Continued on to the Hydaspes (Jhelum) river, where he met and defeated King Porus in what was to be his last great battle. He pushed on to the east, but on The banks of the Hyphasis (Beas) river-his army rebelled. They were tired after Long years of war and were anxious to see their families back in Greece. Alexander could not persuade them otherwise and after sulking in his tent for Two days agreed to lead them back home. Alexander shared the classical belief that the Indus and Nile Rivers were The same. He resolved to test this theory and see whether he could return to the Mediterranean that way.
Pages: 1 2 3
Please do not pass this sample essay as your own, otherwise you will be accused of plagiarism. Our writers can write any custom essay for you!
Alexander the Great’s Lasting Legacy Legend has it that there is a knot in the city of Gordium which is impossible to undo. An ancient prophecy said that whoever could untie this Gordion knot would become the ruler of Asia. According to the story, while Alexander was in Gordium he found a wagon with an ox yoke tied by a Alexander the Great – Obituary Written by: Svejk
Alexander the Great
356 Р 323, King of Macedon, Conqueror of most of Asia
Born in July in Pella, Macedon in 356, Alexander was born to Phillip of Macedon and the Epirote princess Olympias. Legend has it that Zeus himself actually impregnated Olympias, but thatХs just an urban myth. As a young boy Alexander the Report on Alexander the great Alexander the Great was one of the greatest ruler’s and conquerors of all time. He conquered the mighty Persian Empire and most of the known world at that time. Alexander was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia. He was the son of an excellent general and organizer, named Philip II King of Macedon. Alexander The Great Sample essay topic, essay writing: Alexander The Great - 382 words
Alexander the Great(Alexander III) (356-323 BC)"My son, ask for thyself another kingdom, for that which I leave is too small for thee." (King Philip of Macedonia, 339 BC)From victory to victory, from triumph to triumph Alexander created an empire that marked history and brought him Summary of Life of Alexander by Plutarch In his Life of Alexander Plutarch first tells us about Alexander's childhood and his parents, Philip of Macedon and Olimpias. We learn about his abilities and talents that were revealed fairly early in his life. Plutarch portrays Alexander as quite an extraordinary child. For example, in his conversation with the ambassadors from the King of